Toxic element profile of ice cream in Bangladesh: a health risk assessment study
Category:- Journal; Year:- 2021
Discipline:- Chemistry Discipline
School:- Science, Engineering & Technology School
Ice cream is a popular frozen dairy product and a possible source of dietary minerals. However, ice cream may also contain toxic metals, which may cause several health implications. The current study aimed to determine the content of toxic elements in ice cream samples using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and to assess the health risks of consumers based on target cancer risk (TCR), target hazard quotient (THQ), and hazardous index (HI). The determined concentration (median, range) of all studied elements had shown a descending order of Al (9.36, 5.37–14.26) > Zn (5.94, 1.95–10.22) > Cu (1.73, 1.02–3.77) > Ni (0.95, 0.67–1.80) > Fe (0.79, 0.10–1.64) > Cr (0.43, 0.28–0.73) > Mn (0.42, 0.11–1.03) > Pb (0.34, 0.09–0.79) > Cd (0.08, 0.04–0.14) mg/kg (fresh weight). The values of THQ and HI (except 16% for children) were lower than the maximum threshold risk limit (TRL = 1.0), indicating no potential non-carcinogenic health effects might occur. Similarly, the TCR of Cr and Pb for both adults and children was within the permissible limit of 10−4–10−6, which suggested that the consumer would not experience potential lifetime carcinogenic health risks. However, the overall analyses revealed that the consumption of ice cream is almost safe for people, but the combined impact of all metals (HI) in some samples is a matter of health concern. Henceforth, regular monitoring of toxic metals in ice creams should be done to assure food safety and hygiene.